Transportation capital: the long and winding roads

Filed under: News |

When Interstate 25 opened to traffic in 1960, it handled traffic volumes of 8,500 cars per day. Today, there are more than 100,000 cars driving on I-25 through Colorado Springs daily.

Does the Pikes Peak region get its fair share of state and federal transportation funding?
That question was asked to several local elected officials. To a man, and to a woman, they agreed: It doesn’t.
Randy Purvis, having served almost four terms on the Colorado Springs City Council (1987-1999, 2003-present), was brief and to the point. “We never have,” he said.
County Commissioner Jim Bensberg was more diplomatic, but no less direct.
“What we get just doesn’t seem to be adequate to our needs, compared to what some other parts of the state get,” he said.
And, as previously reported, all the candidates in attendance at a recent 5th Congressional District forum agreed that transportation needs in Colorado Springs, and the entire district, are woefully underfunded.
This belief is not new.
A dozen years ago, responding to a City Council inquiry, then-Colorado Springs Budget Director Mike Anderson wrote a lengthy memo, which pointed out that although the Springs accounted for nearly 14 percent of state gasoline tax revenue, only between 7 percent and 9 percent of transportation capital improvement funding had gone to the city.
Is Colorado Springs simply being outsmarted by the folks in Denver — whose roads seem to be newer, wider and less congested? Why isn’t the entirety of Interstate 25 six lanes? Why doesn’t Colorado Springs have a high-speed eastern bypass? And why did it take the state so long to provide funding for the Colorado Springs Metro Expansion project?
The answers to these questions are neither simple nor obvious.
Transportation funding is not just a complex subject, it’s a bizarrely complex subject.
The Colorado Department of Transportation distributes a 71-page “Elected Official’s Guide to CDOT,” replete with graphs, pie charts and bewilderingly opaque sentences.
An example: “Similar to the STIP, the TIP is updated every two years, and under SAFETEA-LU will only need to be updated every four years.”
If you don’t know what they’re talking about, you need only refer to an index of acronyms in the back of the guide that covers 12 single-spaced pages.
Transportation funding comes from four sources: the state tax on fuel, the federal tax on fuel, the state general fund and bond proceeds.
In the 2005-06 budget cycle, revenue from all sources (excluding bond proceeds) amounted to $1.2 billion. Of that, $268 million was distributed by the state to cities and counties according to a statutory formula. Another $99 million went to the Department of Public Safety, principally to fund the Highway Patrol.
That left $817 million for CDOT.
Of that money, only 3 percent is controlled by the legislature. The remaining 97 percent is appropriated by the State Transportation Commission, a non-partisan body whose 11 members, each representing a transportation district, are appointed by the governor.
If you’re inclined to believe in conspiracy theories, here’s a good place to start. Of the 11 commissioners, five represent Denver and surrounding communities. A sixth commissioner represents the Interstate 70 corridor.
Doesn’t that mean that Colorado Springs will always be the odd man out, forever Avis to Denver’s Hertz? Is it any wonder that Denver’s enormous T-REX project is near completion, while the much smaller COSMIX project is barely under way? Could there be a reason that I-25 has six to eight lanes as far south as Castle Rock, and then turns into a 1950s artifact — an original four-lane interstate highway.
Terry Schooler, who has represented Colorado Springs on the Transportation Commission for three years, doesn’t agree that the Pikes Peak region is getting short shrift.
“I’ve been very pleased by the way we make decisions,” Schooler said. “The commissioners try to take care of the entire system.”
Schooler denies that the commission has a regional bias, stressing that decisions are driven by objective criteria.
Asked why the southern portion of I-25 hasn’t been widened, Schooler patiently instructs a reporter about the intricacies of transportation funding.
“We’ve got about $800 million,” he said. “But look at the bottom line — after maintenance, operations, planning, safety, equipment maintenance and replacement, we only have a little more than $100 million in annually generated revenue for projects such as COSMIX — and that’s for the whole state.”
But what about Referendum C money?
“That’s going to help, but it’s still far short of the need,” Schooler said. “The real problem is not the way the pot is divided, but the fact that the pot is too small.”
But small as the pot is, isn’t the Pikes Peak region getting less than its share?
“Well, let’s face it,” he said, “if we allocated money on the basis of population, or road mileage, or amount of tax collected, the Denver area would get almost all of it.”
Schooler said that it is unrealistic to expect that all gas tax payments generated by the Pikes Peak region be spent in the Pikes Peak region. CDOT is responsible for road-building and maintenance throughout the state, and rural, thinly-populated counties don’t generate enough dollars to maintain their highways.
Huerfano County can’t afford to rebuild or maintain I-25 for example, but does that mean the state should simply abandon 40 miles of interstate highway?
Yet national statistics seem to show that Colorado metropolitan areas, compared to cities elsewhere, are underfunded. During the five years between 1998-2003, considering only the federal fuel tax, Colorado municipalities incurred a deficit of $455 million, which, when the state tax is added, soars to more than $1 billion.
Large cities with extensive transit systems and small cities in states with powerful congressional delegations fared extremely well. New York, San Francisco and Pittsburgh took in a combined $9 billion more than they paid, while Anchorage, Alaska, raked in an $836 million surplus.
Adding insult to injury, transportation funding gets siphoned away by clever bureaucratic maneuvers.
For example, although the Highway Patrol is funded by fuel taxes, revenue generated by fines and fees flows into the state general fund — and isn’t dedicated to transportation. On a local level, the state Department of Revenue collects the 1 percent sales tax levied by the Pikes Peak Rural Transportation Authority, disburses it to the PPRTA and charges $432,000 annually to perform this service.
In the Washington labyrinth, it’s easy to assume that folks who are paid to collect and disburse the national fuel tax are asleep at the wheel. Studying the Department of Transportation’s Web site, the Business Journal noted a minor error in addition: $10 billion. The error was corrected on subsequent pages.
Commissioner Bensberg, who served as an aide to Sen. Wayne Allard in Washington for several years, notes wryly that politics drives most congressional funding. He was “dismayed, but not surprised” that Anchorage collected $836 million while Colorado Springs paid out $95 million.
In a series of conversations with Bensberg, Schooler and other elected/appointed officials, it became clear that four closely related, interlocking phenomena may influence these shortfalls.
No. 1: Colorado is a large, mountainous, relatively lightly populated state with severe winter weather, and gas tax dollars will always subsidize rural Colorado.
No. 2: Denver, with its large transit system and its control of the Transportation Commission, will always receive a disproportionate share of federal and state transportation dollars.
No. 3: Colorado Springs hasn’t had a powerful voice in Washington who could direct some of the federal transportation pork to the Pikes Peak region. The area’s first priority has always been to retain its military bases, not to improve the transportation system. And that likely won’t change, with a newcomer representing the Springs in the next Congress.
No. 4: The Taxpayers Bill of Rights. Since the passage of the tax limitation amendment to the Colorado Constitution in 1992, the state has refunded $3.2 billion in “excess” revenue to taxpayers via rebates or tax cuts. And although it’s uncertain how much of that revenue, if appropriated, would have been designated for Springs-area transportation needs, it might have been substantial.
And if that’s not enough, Schooler has a fifth phenomenon.
“Our principal source of transportation funding is the gas tax — and that’s a declining revenue source,” he said. “As gas gets more expensive, people will drive less and get more efficient cars, and per capita consumption goes down. The cars still degrade the roads, but they use less gas.”
Schooler is not optimistic about the future. He points out that, although the transportation network is vital to the state’s economy, there is no statewide network of activists demanding more money for the roads.
During the last two decades, citizen groups have successfully sponsored constitutional amendments which created dedicated funding for open space, historic preservation and K-12 education.
Arguably, all of those amendments reduced the amount of money available for transportation.
But, as Schooler acknowledges, local transportation initiatives with clearly defined objectives have passed easily in Colorado Springs and Denver.
Is it possible that a proposal modeled after the Pikes Peak Rural Transportation Authority, which voters approved in 2004, could pass statewide?
Schooler hopes so.
“If we’re going to have the kind of transportation system that we want and need — just to drive to work and back, have enough capacity on the interstates, go to the mountains for the weekend — we’ll have to fund it,” he said.
How much will it cost? At least $1 billion annually, Schooler said.
He was asked when he thought, under current funding scenarios, Colorado Springs could expect to see I-25 widened to six lanes.
“A number of years, certainly,” Schooler said. “These projects are so expensive and divisive — they’re projecting $240 million just to do a few miles of Highway 24 on the West Side — and there are a lot of people who just don’t want to build it at all.”
John.Hazlehurst@csbj.com

Metro Areas with Large Transit Systems Get a Greater Share of Federal Tax
Dollars

1998-2003 Federal Highway Accounts Federal Transit Accounts Gain/Loss Pennies Returned on the Dollar
Gas Taxes Paid Spending Gas Taxes Paid Spending Hwy only Hwy +Transit
Abilene, TX 95,557,000 71,935,000 14,334,000 3,589,000 -34,367,000 $0.75 $0.69
Albany, GA 94,840,000 31,024,000 14,226,000 2,137,000 -75,905,000 $0.33 $0.30
Albany-Schenectady-Troy, NY 437,276,000 522,181,000 65,591,000 101,497,000 120,811,000 $1.19 $1.24
Albuquerque, NM 608,775,000 472,873,000 91,316,000 24,304,000 -202,915,000 $0.78 $0.71
Alexandria, LA 85,119,000 197,880,000 12,768,000 359,000 100,352,000 $2.32 $2.03
Allentown-Bethlehem-Easton, PA 372,176,000 387,949,000 55,826,000 14,201,000 -25,852,000 $1.04 $0.94
Altoona, PA 77,303,000 134,293,000 11,595,000 2,900,000 48,295,000 $1.74 $1.54
Amarillo, TX 165,898,000 121,959,000 24,885,000 3,591,000 -65,233,000 $0.74 $0.66
Anchorage, AK 163,597,000 1,004,495,000 24,540,000 19,708,000 836,067,000 $6.14 $5.44
Anniston, AL 90,978,000 77,031,000 13,647,000 0 -27,594,000 $0.85 $0.74
Appleton-Oshkosh-Neenah, WI 216,318,000 175,414,000 32,448,000 1,023,000 -72,328,000 $0.81 $0.71
Asheville, NC 156,310,000 314,701,000 23,447,000 1,438,000 136,381,000 $2.01 $1.76
Athens, GA 132,372,000 50,111,000 19,856,000 1,928,000 -100,189,000 $0.38 $0.34
Atlanta, GA 3,401,122,000 2,616,962,000 510,168,000 506,777,000 -787,552,000 $0.77 $0.80
Auburn-Opelika, AL 92,854,000 90,250,000 13,928,000 642,000 -15,890,000 $0.97 $0.85
Augusta-Aiken, GA-SC 380,668,000 319,460,000 57,100,000 4,221,000 -114,087,000 $0.84 $0.74
Austin-San Marcos, TX 956,014,000 742,180,000 143,402,000 94,321,000 -262,915,000 $0.78 $0.76
Bakersfield, CA 313,293,000 432,140,000 46,994,000 22,725,000 94,577,000 $1.38 $1.26
Baton Rouge, LA 417,563,000 385,814,000 62,634,000 5,887,000 -88,497,000 $0.92 $0.82
Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX 278,119,000 201,153,000 41,718,000 1,514,000 -117,169,000 $0.72 $0.63
Bellingham, WA 92,083,000 101,444,000 13,812,000 8,158,000 3,707,000 $1.10 $1.04
Benton Harbor, MI 99,030,000 164,255,000 14,855,000 1,230,000 51,601,000 $1.66 $1.45
Billings, MT 112,265,000 116,764,000 16,840,000 842,000 -11,499,000 $1.04 $0.91
Biloxi-Gulfport-Pascagoula, MS 313,621,000 200,181,000 47,043,000 4,147,000 -156,336,000 $0.64 $0.57
Binghamton, NY 125,245,000 288,350,000 18,787,000 6,378,000 150,696,000 $2.30 $2.05
Birmingham, AL 721,746,000 653,808,000 108,262,000 28,075,000 -148,125,000 $0.91 $0.82
Bismarck, ND 80,357,000 147,071,000 12,054,000 3,085,000 57,745,000 $1.83 $1.62
Bloomington, IN 87,889,000 53,370,000 13,183,000 1,777,000 -45,925,000 $0.61 $0.55
Bloomington-Normal, IL 75,939,000 150,199,000 11,391,000 181,000 63,050,000 $1.98 $1.72
Boise City, ID 328,312,000 358,312,000 49,247,000 5,279,000 -13,969,000 $1.09 $0.96
Brownsville-Harlingen-San Benito, TX 185,216,000 279,951,000 27,782,000 4,970,000 71,923,000 $1.51 $1.34
Bryan-College Station, TX 111,188,000 80,910,000 16,678,000 0 -46,957,000 $0.73 $0.63
Buffalo-Niagara Falls, NY 564,335,000 535,765,000 84,650,000 38,143,000 -75,077,000 $0.95 $0.88
Canton-Massillon, OH 235,899,000 119,931,000 35,385,000 14,685,000 -136,667,000 $0.51 $0.50
Casper, WY 118,212,000 118,552,000 17,732,000 0 -17,392,000 $1.00 $0.87
Cedar Rapids, IA 129,913,000 53,267,000 19,487,000 8,997,000 -87,136,000 $0.41 $0.42
Champaign-Urbana, IL 90,988,000 79,514,000 13,648,000 8,973,000 -16,150,000 $0.87 $0.85
Charleston, WV 176,937,000 205,833,000 26,541,000 10,709,000 13,065,000 $1.16 $1.06
Charleston-North Charleston, SC 419,578,000 682,966,000 62,937,000 6,451,000 206,902,000 $1.63 $1.43
Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock Hill, NC-SC 995,261,000 937,536,000 149,289,000 56,241,000 -150,772,000 $0.94 $0.87
Charlottesville, VA 111,644,000 71,811,000 16,747,000 4,540,000 -52,040,000 $0.64 $0.59
Chattanooga, TN-GA 369,518,000 352,884,000 55,428,000 16,879,000 -55,183,000 $0.95 $0.87
Cheyenne, WY 140,345,000 104,294,000 21,052,000 854,000 -56,249,000 $0.74 $0.65
Chicago-Gary-Kenosha, IL-IN-WI 4,206,591,000 3,333,816,000 630,989,000 1,624,316,000 120,553,000 $0.79 $1.02
Chico-Paradise, CA 123,223,000 70,472,000 18,483,000 87,000 -71,148,000 $0.57 $0.50
Cincinnati-Hamilton, OH-KY-IN 1,200,392,000 1,074,693,000 180,059,000 60,885,000 -244,874,000 $0.90 $0.82
Clarksville-Hopkinsville, TN-KY 144,525,000 113,938,000 21,679,000 2,272,000 -49,995,000 $0.79 $0.70
Cleveland-Akron, OH 1,668,090,000 1,351,254,000 250,214,000 239,702,000 -327,347,000 $0.81 $0.83
Colorado Springs, CO 275,703,000 198,118,000 41,355,000 23,740,000 -95,201,000 $0.72 $0.70
Colorado Springs’ rank per column, from greatest, of 265 89 122 89 58 207 202 190
Columbia, MO 106,708,000 51,106,000 16,006,000 4,751,000 -66,858,000 $0.48 $0.46
Columbia, SC 420,482,000 309,227,000 63,072,000 537,000 -173,790,000 $0.74 $0.64
Columbus, GA-AL 215,395,000 157,552,000 32,309,000 5,005,000 -85,148,000 $0.73 $0.66
Columbus, OH 897,462,000 916,991,000 134,619,000 63,026,000 -52,064,000 $1.02 $0.95
Corpus Christi, TX 259,391,000 196,401,000 38,909,000 16,348,000 -85,550,000 $0.76 $0.71
Corvallis, OR 48,533,000 10,494,000 7,280,000 0 -45,319,000 $0.22 $0.19
Cumberland, MD-WV 63,605,000 91,918,000 9,541,000 0 18,773,000 $1.45 $1.26
Dallas-Fort Worth, TX 3,858,417,000 2,500,289,000 578,763,000 837,728,000 -1,099,163,000 $0.65 $0.75
Danville, VA 77,613,000 64,911,000 11,642,000 563,000 -23,780,000 $0.84 $0.73
Davenport-Moline-Rock Island, IA-IL 209,989,000 201,549,000 31,498,000 8,934,000 -31,004,000 $0.96 $0.87
Daytona Beach, FL 297,363,000 317,623,000 44,604,000 28,421,000 4,076,000 $1.07 $1.01
Dayton-Springfield, OH 552,886,000 433,482,000 82,933,000 106,323,000 -96,014,000 $0.78 $0.85
Decatur, AL 116,337,000 84,446,000 17,451,000 0 -49,342,000 $0.73 $0.63
Decatur, IL 60,890,000 51,054,000 9,133,000 1,540,000 -17,429,000 $0.84 $0.75
Denver-Boulder-Greeley, CO 1,412,791,000 1,081,792,000 211,919,000 323,336,000 -219,581,000 $0.77 $0.86
Des Moines, IA 303,408,000 451,341,000 45,511,000 16,995,000 119,417,000 $1.49 $1.34
Detroit-Ann Arbor-Flint, MI 3,213,659,000 2,897,449,000 482,049,000 158,831,000 -639,428,000 $0.90 $0.83
Dothan, AL 110,223,000 65,422,000 16,533,000 2,044,000 -59,291,000 $0.59 $0.53
Dover, DE 73,328,000 154,852,000 10,999,000 0 70,525,000 $2.11 $1.84
Dubuque, IA 56,409,000 76,890,000 8,461,000 1,144,000 13,165,000 $1.36 $1.20
Duluth-Superior, MN-WI 127,047,000 215,556,000 19,057,000 7,751,000 77,204,000 $1.70 $1.53
Eau Claire, WI 89,541,000 135,081,000 13,431,000 1,994,000 34,104,000 $1.51 $1.33
El Paso, TX 405,528,000 369,308,000 60,829,000 30,493,000 -66,557,000 $0.91 $0.86
Elkhart-Goshen, IN 124,608,000 71,009,000 18,691,000 458,000 -71,832,000 $0.57 $0.50
Elmira, NY 43,749,000 86,215,000 6,562,000 6,346,000 42,251,000 $1.97 $1.84
Enid, OK 50,038,000 9,375,000 7,506,000 0 -48,170,000 $0.19 $0.16
Erie, PA 158,485,000 325,325,000 23,773,000 10,134,000 153,201,000 $2.05 $1.84
Eugene-Springfield, OR 205,149,000 172,709,000 30,772,000 23,905,000 -39,307,000 $0.84 $0.83
Evansville-Henderson, IN-KY 224,493,000 230,516,000 33,674,000 1,441,000 -26,211,000 $1.03 $0.90
Fargo-Moorhead, ND-MN 132,884,000 219,153,000 19,933,000 1,356,000 67,692,000 $1.65 $1.44
Fayetteville, NC 179,283,000 153,004,000 26,893,000 5,396,000 -47,776,000 $0.85 $0.77
Fayetteville-Springdale-Rogers, AR 273,088,000 262,621,000 40,963,000 1,070,000 -50,360,000 $0.96 $0.84
Flagstaff, AZ-UT 74,528,000 197,347,000 11,179,000 0 111,640,000 $2.65 $2.30
Florence, AL 119,776,000 114,367,000 17,966,000 1,511,000 -21,865,000 $0.95 $0.84
Florence, SC 94,446,000 72,087,000 14,167,000 5,128,000 -31,397,000 $0.76 $0.71
Fort Collins-Loveland, CO 141,307,000 53,921,000 21,196,000 7,974,000 -100,608,000 $0.38 $0.38
Fort Myers-Cape Coral, FL 274,932,000 95,620,000 41,240,000 6,652,000 -213,901,000 $0.35 $0.32
Fort Pierce-Port St. Lucie, FL 193,317,000 145,053,000 28,998,000 3,508,000 -73,754,000 $0.75 $0.67
Fort Smith, AR-OK 177,428,000 216,927,000 26,614,000 0 12,884,000 $1.22 $1.06
Fort Walton Beach, FL 98,370,000 66,723,000 14,756,000 1,924,000 -44,479,000 $0.68 $0.61
Fort Wayne, IN 365,915,000 309,143,000 54,887,000 7,552,000 -104,107,000 $0.84 $0.75
Fresno, CA 432,153,000 476,185,000 64,823,000 17,890,000 -2,901,000 $1.10 $0.99
Gadsden, AL 83,857,000 54,300,000 12,579,000 0 -42,136,000 $0.65 $0.56
Gainesville, FL 125,575,000 112,909,000 18,836,000 7,265,000 -24,237,000 $0.90 $0.83
Glens Falls, NY 62,378,000 77,340,000 9,357,000 1,535,000 7,139,000 $1.24 $1.10
Goldsboro, NC 70,123,000 60,056,000 10,518,000 331,000 -20,254,000 $0.86 $0.75
Grand Forks, ND-MN 69,349,000 81,006,000 10,402,000 186,000 1,440,000 $1.17 $1.02
Grand Junction, CO 65,846,000 43,747,000 9,877,000 985,000 -30,991,000 $0.66 $0.59
Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI 628,945,000 660,654,000 94,342,000 24,533,000 -38,099,000 $1.05 $0.95
Great Falls, MT 69,023,000 104,188,000 10,353,000 1,646,000 26,457,000 $1.51 $1.33
Green Bay, WI 137,315,000 90,921,000 20,597,000 12,373,000 -54,618,000 $0.66 $0.65
Greensboro–Winston-Salem–High Point, NC 836,551,000 766,107,000 125,483,000 15,421,000 -180,505,000 $0.92 $0.81
Greenville, NC 86,450,000 60,402,000 12,967,000 0 -39,015,000 $0.70 $0.61
Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson, SC 772,501,000 635,775,000 115,875,000 5,433,000 -247,168,000 $0.82 $0.72
Harrisburg-Lebanon-Carlisle, PA 378,757,000 508,080,000 56,813,000 6,681,000 79,191,000 $1.34 $1.18
Hattiesburg, MS 95,003,000 86,337,000 14,250,000 0 -22,916,000 $0.91 $0.79
Hickory-Morganton-Lenoir, NC 227,218,000 158,239,000 34,083,000 0 -103,061,000 $0.70 $0.61
Honolulu, HI 295,604,000 671,949,000 44,341,000 105,714,000 437,718,000 $2.27 $2.29
Houma, LA 125,411,000 118,172,000 18,812,000 305,000 -25,747,000 $0.94 $0.82
Houston-Galveston-Brazoria, TX 3,257,940,000 2,918,962,000 488,691,000 535,638,000 -292,032,000 $0.90 $0.92
Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH 224,226,000 247,775,000 33,634,000 6,065,000 -4,021,000 $1.11 $0.98
Huntsville, AL 276,582,000 228,958,000 41,487,000 2,405,000 -86,706,000 $0.83 $0.73
Indianapolis, IN 1,191,821,000 1,097,220,000 178,773,000 42,198,000 -231,176,000 $0.92 $0.83
Iowa City, IA 73,329,000 32,634,000 10,999,000 2,146,000 -49,549,000 $0.45 $0.41
Jackson, MI 90,989,000 52,806,000 13,648,000 2,238,000 -49,594,000 $0.58 $0.53
Jackson, MS 362,708,000 317,267,000 54,406,000 8,783,000 -91,064,000 $0.87 $0.78
Jackson, TN 76,743,000 103,394,000 11,511,000 2,809,000 17,948,000 $1.35 $1.20
Jacksonville, FL 607,877,000 799,535,000 91,182,000 70,944,000 171,420,000 $1.32 $1.25
Jacksonville, NC 81,478,000 69,094,000 12,222,000 0 -24,606,000 $0.85 $0.74
Jamestown, NY 68,030,000 126,968,000 10,205,000 0 48,734,000 $1.87 $1.62
Janesville-Beloit, WI 92,047,000 82,255,000 13,807,000 2,778,000 -20,821,000 $0.89 $0.80
Johnson City-Kingsport-Bristol, TN-VA 373,104,000 226,272,000 55,966,000 1,540,000 -201,258,000 $0.61 $0.53
Johnstown, PA 136,250,000 195,468,000 20,437,000 4,780,000 43,560,000 $1.43 $1.28
Jonesboro, AR 73,661,000 77,752,000 11,049,000 0 -6,959,000 $1.06 $0.92
Joplin, MO 123,425,000 73,656,000 18,514,000 0 -68,282,000 $0.60 $0.52
Kalamazoo-Battle Creek, MI 276,161,000 188,758,000 41,424,000 9,811,000 -119,016,000 $0.68 $0.63
Kansas City, MO-KS 1,318,396,000 1,084,566,000 197,759,000 44,901,000 -386,689,000 $0.82 $0.74
Killeen-Temple, TX 212,644,000 96,353,000 31,897,000 1,133,000 -147,055,000 $0.45 $0.40
Knoxville, TN 539,872,000 466,730,000 80,981,000 13,296,000 -140,827,000 $0.86 $0.77
Kokomo, IN 78,521,000 32,859,000 11,778,000 600,000 -56,841,000 $0.42 $0.37
La Crosse, WI-MN 74,017,000 66,181,000 11,103,000 2,821,000 -16,118,000 $0.89 $0.81
Lafayette, IN 128,541,000 147,844,000 19,281,000 7,247,000 7,269,000 $1.15 $1.05
Lafayette, LA 259,568,000 211,647,000 38,935,000 1,761,000 -85,096,000 $0.82 $0.71
Lake Charles, LA 128,168,000 103,084,000 19,225,000 0 -44,310,000 $0.80 $0.70
Lakeland-Winter Haven, FL 268,897,000 197,327,000 40,334,000 9,091,000 -102,813,000 $0.73 $0.67
Lancaster, PA 259,062,000 207,498,000 38,859,000 4,096,000 -86,327,000 $0.80 $0.71
Lansing-East Lansing, MI 272,495,000 327,684,000 40,874,000 18,434,000 32,748,000 $1.20 $1.10
Laredo, TX 95,852,000 156,012,000 14,378,000 6,029,000 51,811,000 $1.63 $1.47
Las Cruces, NM 131,908,000 163,949,000 19,786,000 1,376,000 13,631,000 $1.24 $1.09
Las Vegas, NV-AZ 955,899,000 983,058,000 143,385,000 82,875,000 -33,351,000 $1.03 $0.97
Lawrence, KS 68,564,000 20,724,000 10,285,000 3,042,000 -55,083,000 $0.30 $0.30
Lawton, OK 84,280,000 49,211,000 12,642,000 0 -47,711,000 $0.58 $0.51
Lexington, KY 400,873,000 418,786,000 60,131,000 10,286,000 -31,933,000 $1.04 $0.93
Lima, OH 86,193,000 52,549,000 12,929,000 0 -46,573,000 $0.61 $0.53
Lincoln, NE 194,690,000 121,878,000 29,203,000 6,272,000 -95,743,000 $0.63 $0.57
Little Rock-North Little Rock, AR 520,077,000 388,103,000 78,012,000 17,142,000 -192,844,000 $0.75 $0.68
Longview-Marshall, TX 157,787,000 140,833,000 23,668,000 0 -40,622,000 $0.89 $0.78
Los Angeles-Riverside-Orange County, CA 8,061,846,000 6,817,169,000 1,209,277,000 1,291,533,000 -1,162,422,000 $0.85 $0.87
Louisville, KY-IN 828,422,000 753,897,000 124,263,000 51,298,000 -147,491,000 $0.91 $0.85
Lubbock, TX 185,953,000 130,274,000 27,893,000 5,344,000 -78,228,000 $0.70 $0.63
Lynchburg, VA 150,087,000 119,399,000 22,513,000 3,989,000 -49,212,000 $0.80 $0.71
Macon, GA 267,704,000 286,364,000 40,156,000 0 -21,496,000 $1.07 $0.93
Madison, WI 266,887,000 196,357,000 40,033,000 24,598,000 -85,965,000 $0.74 $0.72
Mansfield, OH 100,795,000 202,868,000 15,119,000 1,201,000 88,155,000 $2.01 $1.76
McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX 305,400,000 309,781,000 45,810,000 4,621,000 -36,807,000 $1.01 $0.90
Medford-Ashland, OR 114,802,000 149,826,000 17,220,000 648,000 18,451,000 $1.31 $1.14
Melbourne-Titusville-Palm Bay, FL 290,246,000 131,741,000 43,537,000 7,058,000 -194,984,000 $0.45 $0.42
Memphis, TN-AR-MS 802,471,000 830,630,000 120,371,000 71,075,000 -21,136,000 $1.04 $0.98
Merced, CA 95,821,000 136,623,000 14,373,000 2,270,000 28,699,000 $1.43 $1.26
Miami-Fort Lauderdale, FL 917,852,000 561,136,000 137,678,000 390,188,000 -104,206,000 $0.61 $0.90
Milwaukee-Racine, WI 974,667,000 994,316,000 146,200,000 78,214,000 -48,337,000 $1.02 $0.96
Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN-WI 1,418,181,000 1,298,734,000 212,727,000 408,294,000 76,120,000 $0.92 $1.05
Missoula, MT 83,325,000 107,673,000 12,499,000 6,049,000 17,898,000 $1.29 $1.19
Mobile, AL 413,692,000 438,668,000 62,054,000 13,415,000 -23,663,000 $1.06 $0.95
Modesto, CA 222,534,000 131,304,000 33,380,000 6,148,000 -118,463,000 $0.59 $0.54
Monroe, LA 98,876,000 66,953,000 14,831,000 2,486,000 -44,269,000 $0.68 $0.61
Montgomery, AL 249,834,000 227,835,000 37,475,000 10,444,000 -49,031,000 $0.91 $0.83
Muncie, IN 89,082,000 79,460,000 13,362,000 6,018,000 -16,966,000 $0.89 $0.83
Myrtle Beach, SC 170,925,000 319,984,000 25,639,000 140,000 123,559,000 $1.87 $1.63
Naples, FL 151,609,000 109,419,000 22,741,000 0 -64,932,000 $0.72 $0.63
Nashville, TN 921,555,000 861,431,000 138,233,000 38,109,000 -160,248,000 $0.93 $0.85
New Orleans, LA 869,517,000 445,209,000 130,428,000 86,577,000 -468,159,000 $0.51 $0.53
New York-Northern New Jersey-Long Island, NY-NJ-PA 7,864,762,000 9,046,366,000 1,179,714,000 6,876,710,000 6,878,600,000 $1.15 $1.76
Norfolk-Virginia Beach-Newport News, VA-NC 1,025,261,000 1,909,736,000 153,789,000 68,024,000 798,710,000 $1.86 $1.68
Ocala, FL 155,573,000 108,363,000 23,336,000 1,595,000 -68,950,000 $0.70 $0.61
Odessa-Midland, TX 174,008,000 102,028,000 26,101,000 0 -98,081,000 $0.59 $0.51
Oklahoma City, OK 914,159,000 768,114,000 137,124,000 17,544,000 -265,624,000 $0.84 $0.75
Omaha, NE-IA 528,269,000 650,014,000 79,240,000 22,213,000 64,718,000 $1.23 $1.11
Orlando, FL 907,132,000 515,599,000 136,070,000 94,617,000 -432,986,000 $0.57 $0.58
Owensboro, KY 75,369,000 64,885,000 11,305,000 0 -21,789,000 $0.86 $0.75
Panama City, FL 86,119,000 52,031,000 12,918,000 3,035,000 -43,972,000 $0.60 $0.56
Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH 99,395,000 306,717,000 14,909,000 24,000 192,437,000 $3.09 $2.68
Pensacola, FL 222,774,000 339,052,000 33,416,000 5,371,000 88,232,000 $1.52 $1.34
Peoria-Pekin, IL 179,440,000 201,253,000 26,916,000 6,076,000 973,000 $1.12 $1.00
Philadelphia-Wilmington-Atlantic City, PA-NJ-DE-MD 3,390,739,000 3,205,061,000 508,611,000 667,226,000 -27,063,000 $0.95 $0.99
Phoenix-Mesa, AZ 2,062,121,000 1,310,226,000 309,318,000 157,135,000 -904,079,000 $0.64 $0.62
Pine Bluff, AR 65,932,000 138,273,000 9,890,000 0 62,451,000 $2.10 $1.82
Pittsburgh, PA 1,399,765,000 1,625,257,000 209,965,000 434,153,000 449,681,000 $1.16 $1.28
Pocatello, ID 55,861,000 62,700,000 8,379,000 1,973,000 434,000 $1.12 $1.01
Portland-Salem, OR-WA 1,341,407,000 1,127,767,000 201,211,000 440,282,000 25,431,000 $0.84 $1.02
Provo-Orem, UT 210,081,000 202,750,000 31,512,000 0 -38,843,000 $0.97 $0.84
Pueblo, CO 74,920,000 76,100,000 11,238,000 1,104,000 -8,954,000 $1.02 $0.90
Punta Gorda, FL 93,326,000 87,746,000 13,999,000 1,354,000 -18,225,000 $0.94 $0.83
Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, NC 780,191,000 913,432,000 117,029,000 43,144,000 59,356,000 $1.1